He organized it in three stages of delivery of fire. The first consisted of surprise, concentration, hitting headquarters, phone links, command posts, enemy batteries, and infantry positions.
The fire was sudden, concentrated, and made extensive use of gas. The second stage required that the other batteries reinforced those batteries already firing on enemy batteries.
The third stage asked for fire for effect on designated targets according to range. Some batteries continued to shell infantry positions, heavy pieces engaged long range targets.
To achieve maximum disruptive effect on the enemy, surprise was essential. Thus, the Germans concealed their attack preparations very carefully and their initial target data had to be very accurate.
Bruchmüller rose in position in the east, commanding the artillery of von Hutier 's Eighth Army at Riga in September When his unit was transferred to the west in late , Bruchmüller arrived in time to participate in the Cambrai counterattack.
He was not selected for the post-war Reichswehr and retired in holding the rank of colonel. He had been awarded the Pour le Merite , Germany's highest military award in , being one of only four senior artillery officers to receive this honour.
He died at Garmisch-Partenkirchen in Sign In Don't have an account? Georg Bruchmüller Georg Bruchmüller.
Contents [ show ]. Armeekorps mit Angabe d. Datums d. Patente zu den früheren Dienstgraden.
Burg: Verlag von August Hopfer, Geheime Kriegs-Kanzlei. In he was thrown from his horse and subsequently suffered a nervous breakdown.
He was medically discharged as a lieutenant colonel, but with major's pay. At the beginning of World War I , Bruchmüller was recalled to active duty and soon became artillery commander of the 86th Division on the Eastern Front.
For the counter-attack, Bruchmüller persuaded the commander of the Tenth Army , Generaloberst Hermann von Eichhorn , to centralize the artillery command.
The French and British used prolonged bombardments before an infantry assault, to try to destroy the defenders, like the seven-day barrage opening the Battle of the Somme , while the Germans favored short, intense bombardments, like the ten-hour barrage which opened the Battle of Verdun.
Bruchmüller devised intricate, centrally-controlled firing plans for intense bombardments. His operations emphasized fire in depth throughout the enemy positions, switching rapidly from target to target and then back again, which required strict, detailed control of every gun, to cause maximum disruption of the defenders.
Each battery of each type of weapon received fire missions on a timetable. The first stage hit headquarters, phone links, command posts, enemy batteries and infantry positions; the fire was sudden, concentrated, and made extensive use of gas shells.
In July , he commanded batteries during the counter-attack that recovered Tarnopol from the Russians, after its loss during the Kerensky Offensive.
Surprise was essential for creating maximum disruption, so Bruchmüller adopted the Pulkowski Method , for bombardments without the customary registration fire.
The position of each gun was surveyed. The Germans concealed their attack preparations but their initial target data had to be precise.
The British had fired from the map in their assault at Cambrai on 20 November Bruchmüller commanded the artillery of the 8th Army General Oskar von Hutier in the victory at Riga in September The 8th Army moved west soon thereafter and, in the first months of , Bruchmüller's techniques were taught to gunners at a special school in Belgium before the German Spring Offensive of The first attack, Operation Michael , began with a barrage of 3.
Defying instructions, Bruchmüller eliminated preliminary registration by firing from the map and then directed the artillery during the next attack at the Battle of the Lys on Flanders, where the artillery had not yet been trained in the Pulkowski method.
The guns were registered by observation during the first phase of the bombardment. The artillery fired from the map in darkness and the infantry advanced at first light.
Bruchmüller was not eligible for the post-war Reichswehr , because the Versailles Treaty prohibited heavy artillery, and he was retired in as a full colonel.
He wrote several books on artillery that were translated into English, French and Russian. In , on the 25th anniversary of the Battle of Tannenberg, he was promoted to major-general on the retired list.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Broad, C. Journal of the Royal Artillery. Woolwich: Royal Artillery Institution.
Ludendorff, Erich My War Memories — London: Hutchinson.
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